The Baltic Crusades were a series of military campaigns commencing in 1147 and ending in 1505, targeting the pagans living in the Baltic region.
Join me as we take a look at one of the lesser-known series of crusades...
Meet the Balts
The Wendish Crusade I - Henry the Lion
Here is a statue which is thought to represent the Duke of Saxony - Henry the Lion. Located in Braunschweig Cathedral in Germany.
The Wendish Crusade II - Wrong bird!
The Wendish Crusade III - In the shadow of the Crusade
This bleak painting is by 19th century German artist Caspar David Friedrich. He was raised on the shores of the Baltic Sea and I think it nicely depicts the difficulty of establishing churches in pagan lands prior to the Baltic Crusades
The Teutonic Knights
Here is a picture of a man wearing the habit of the Teutonic Order (from the Codex Manesse)
The Christianisation of Poland.
Here is a nice portrait of Mieszko I of Poland - unfortunately it may not be terribly accurate as it was painted (by Jan Matejko) around 900 years after his death.
The Livonian Crusade I - Latin-Christian expansion.
Here is an aerial view of the old town of Lübeck, established prior to the Livonian Crusade.
The Livonian Crusade II - An unpromising start.
The Livonian Crusade III - Bishop Albert
Here's a statue of Bishop Albert on the facade of the Cathedral in Riga, Latvia.
The Livonian Crusade IV - The Swordbrothers
Here is a picture of a Teutonic Knight and a Swordbrother. The Swordbrother is on the right, striking a superhero pose.
The Livonian Crusade V - The Christian Pageant
The Livonian Crusade VI - Polotsk
The Livonian Crusade VII - Livonian uprising
Here is a picture of the town of Polotsk (capital city of the Russian Principality of Polotsk) during the 16th century.
The Livonian Crusade VIII - External threats
Here is coin minted during the reign of the all-conquering King Valdemar II of Denmark - featuring a picture of the man himself.
The Livonian Crusade IX - 'Life is not fair. Praise God'
The Livonian Crusade X - Headaches for Bishop Albert
The Livonian Crusade XI - Attacking the neighbours.
Here is a picture of Otto IV of Saxony, shaking hands with Pope Innocent III. Otto is the child-like figure in the middle of the picture.
The Livonian Crusade XII - Livonia under attack
The Livonian Crusade XIII - The Estonian problem
The Livonian Crusade XIV - 1212-1215
The Livonian Crusade XV - The Fourth Lateran Council
The Fourth Lateran Council was held at the Lateran Palace in Rome in November 1215. Here is a depiction of how the palace would have appeared in 1215.
The Livonian Crusade XVI - Two Alberts
The Livonian Crusade XVII - The Danish Checkmate
The Livonian Crusade XVIII - The Danish conquest of Estonia
When King Waldemar II of Denmark attacked the fort at Reval, Estonia in 1219, he built a Danish castle on the site. Today, Reval is called Tallinn and is the capital of Estonia. Toompea Castle now occupies the site where the original fort once stood.
The Livonian Crusade IXX - Danish ascendancy
The Livonian Crusade XX - 1221-1222
The Livonian Crusade XXI - The Estonian uprisings
The Livonian Crusade XXII - Changing fortunes
The Livonian Crusade XXIII - William of Modena
The Livonian Crusade XXIV - 1227: A finishing point
The Prussian Crusade I - Pre-Christian Prussia
Carved boulders depicting both male and female figures were created by the pagan Prussians. Unfortunately, little is known about why they were made, or their function.
The Prussian Crusade II - Poland
The Prussian Crusade III - Bishop Christian
Here is a plaque dedicated to Bishop Christian, in Poland.
The Prussian Crusade IV - 1221-1226
The Prussian Crusade V - The Teutonic Knights
The Prussian Crusade VI - The Golden Bull of Rimini
Here is a photo of the document featured in this episode - the Golden Bull of Rimini. Image from the photograph archives of the University of Marburg
The Prussian Crusade VII - Vogelsang
The Prussian Crusade VIII - Legalities
The Prussian Crusade IX - The Charter of Kulm
The Livonian Crusade XXV - Baldwin of Alna
The Livonian Crusade XXVI - Overreach
The Livonian Crusade XXVII - Trouble for the Swordbrothers
The Livonian Crusade XXVIII - The end of the Swordbrothers
The Crusade to Novgorod
Here is a depiction of the famous Battle on the Ice fought during the Crusade to Novgorod (taken from a 16th century manuscript entitled 'The Life of Alexander Nevsky')