The Baltic Crusades were a series of military campaigns commencing in 1147 and ending in 1505, targeting the pagans living in the Baltic region.  

Join me as we take a look at one of the lesser-known series of crusades...

  1. Northern Europe in 814
  2. 220px Braunschweig Brunswick Heinrich der Loewe Dom 2005

    Episode 190 The Baltic Crusades

    The Wendish Crusade I - Henry the Lion

     

    Here is a statue which is thought to represent the Duke of Saxony - Henry the Lion.  Located in Braunschweig Cathedral in Germany.

  3. Episode 191 The Baltic Crusades

    The Wendish Crusade II - Wrong bird!

  4. 1024px Caspar David Friedrich The Abbey in the Oakwood WGA08240

    Episode 192 The Baltic Crusades

    The Wendish Crusade III - In the shadow of the Crusade

     

     

    This bleak painting is by 19th century German artist Caspar David Friedrich.  He was raised on the shores of the Baltic Sea and I think it nicely depicts the difficulty of establishing churches in pagan lands prior to the Baltic Crusades 

  5. 240px Codex Manesse Tannhauser

    Episode 193 The Baltic Crusades

    The Teutonic Knights

     

    Here is a picture of a man wearing the habit of the Teutonic Order (from the Codex Manesse)

  6. MieszkoDagome

    Episode 194 The Baltic Crusades

    The Christianisation of Poland.

     

    Here is a nice portrait of Mieszko I of Poland - unfortunately it may not be terribly accurate as it was painted (by Jan Matejko) around 900 years after his death.

  7. 800px Lubeck panorama

    Episode 195 The Baltic Crusade

    The Livonian Crusade I - Latin-Christian expansion.

     

    Here is an aerial view of the old town of Lübeck, established prior to the Livonian Crusade.

  8. Episode 196 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade II - An unpromising start.

  9. 800px Albert of Riga

    Episode 197 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade III - Bishop Albert

     

    Here's a statue of Bishop Albert on the facade of the Cathedral in Riga, Latvia.

  10. 240px LivoniaKnight

    Episode 198 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade IV - The Swordbrothers

     

    Here is a picture of a Teutonic Knight and a Swordbrother.  The Swordbrother is on the right, striking a superhero pose.

  11. Episode 199 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade V - The Christian Pageant

  12. Episode 200 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade VI - Polotsk

  13. 800px Polatsk XVI

    Episode 201 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade VII - Livonian uprising

     

    Here is a picture of the town of Polotsk (capital city of the Russian Principality of Polotsk) during the 16th century.

  14. 220px Coin minted for king Valdemar II of Denmark Valdemar II Sejr

    Episode Episode 202 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade VIII - External threats

     

    Here is coin minted during the reign of the all-conquering King Valdemar II of Denmark - featuring a picture of the man himself.

  15. Episode 203 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade IX - 'Life is not fair.  Praise God'

  16. Episode 204 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade X - Headaches for Bishop Albert

  17. 800px Otto IV. und Papst Innocenz III. reichen sich vor den ankommenden Schiffen Friedrichs II. die Hande

    Episode 205 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XI - Attacking the neighbours.

     

    Here is a picture of Otto IV of Saxony, shaking hands with Pope Innocent III.  Otto is the child-like figure in the middle of the picture.

  18. Episode 206 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XII - Livonia under attack

  19. Episode 207 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XIII - The Estonian problem

  20. Episode 208 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XIV - 1212-1215

  21. De sacris aedificiis a Costantino Magno constructis synopsis historica pag. 17 Tab. V

    Episode 209 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XV - The Fourth Lateran Council

     

    The Fourth Lateran Council was held at the Lateran Palace in Rome in November 1215.  Here is a depiction of how the palace would have appeared in 1215.

  22. Episode 210 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XVI - Two Alberts

  23. Episode 211 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XVII - The Danish Checkmate

  24. Toompea loss 2014

    Episode 212 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XVIII - The Danish conquest of Estonia

     

    When King Waldemar II of Denmark attacked the fort at Reval, Estonia in 1219, he built a Danish castle on the site.  Today, Reval is called Tallinn and is the capital of Estonia.  Toompea Castle now occupies the site where the original fort once stood.

  25. Episode 213 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade IXX - Danish ascendancy

  26. Episode 214 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XX - 1221-1222

  27. Episode 215 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXI - The Estonian uprisings

  28. Episode 216 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXII - Changing fortunes

  29. Episode 217 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXIII - William of Modena

  30. Episode 218 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXIV - 1227: A finishing point

  31. 220px Prussian Hag

    Episode 219 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade I - Pre-Christian Prussia

     

    Carved boulders depicting both male and female figures were created by the pagan Prussians.  Unfortunately, little is known about why they were made, or their function.

  32. Episode 220 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade II - Poland

  33. 220px Bishop Christian Plaque Grudziadz

    Episode 221 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade III - Bishop Christian

     

    Here is a plaque dedicated to Bishop Christian, in Poland.

  34. Episode 222 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade IV - 1221-1226

  35. Episode 223 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade V - The Teutonic Knights

  36. http 137.248.186.134 lba cgi local pic.sh jpg D1805

    Episode 224 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade VI - The Golden Bull of Rimini

     

    Here is a photo of the document featured in this episode - the Golden Bull of Rimini.  Image from the photograph archives of the University of Marburg

  37. Episode 225 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade VII - Vogelsang

  38. Episode 226 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade VIII - Legalities

  39. Episode 227 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade IX - The Charter of Kulm

  40. Episode 228 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXV - Baldwin of Alna

  41. Episode 229 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXVI - Overreach

  42. Episode 230 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXVII - Trouble for the Swordbrothers

  43. Episode 231 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXVIII - The end of the Swordbrothers

  44. Facial Chronicle b.06 p.085 Battle of the Ice

    Episode 232 The Baltic Crusades

    The Crusade to Novgorod

     

    Here is a depiction of the famous Battle on the Ice fought during the Crusade to Novgorod (taken from a 16th century manuscript entitled 'The Life of Alexander Nevsky')

  45. 220px Bishop Christian Plaque Grudziadz2

    Episode 233 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade X - Bishop Christian

     

    Here is a memorial to Bishop Christian which you can currently find in northern Poland.

  46. 220px Prussian clans 13th century

    Episode 234 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XI - The Four Bishoprics

     

    Here is a map of 13th century Prussia which doesn't show the four Bishoprics but does show the location of the main settlements established by the Teutonic Order and the areas occupied by the different Prussian groupsl

  47. 800px HedwigManuscriptLiegnitz b

    Episode 235 The Baltic Crusades

    The Mongol Invasions

     

    Following the defeat of the Polish forces at the battle of Liegnitz, the Mongols decapitated Duke Henryk II of Silesia and placed his head on a spear at the front of the Mongol army.  Here is an illustration of that event from a manuscript which forms part of the collection at the Warsaw University Library.

  48. Episode 236 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXIX - The Southern Push Part 1

  49. Episode 237 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXX - The Southern Push Part 2

  50. Episode 238 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXXI - The Southern Push Part 3

  51. Episode 239 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXXII - Samogitian defiance

  52. Episode 240 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXXIII - Albert Suerbeer

  53. Episode 241 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XII - The First Prussian Insurrection

  54. Episode 242 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXXIV - The Battle of Durben

  55. Teutonic Order 1260

    Episode 243 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXXV - Crisis

     

    Here is a useful map (courtesy of wikipedia) setting out the situation in the Baltic region in the year 1260

  56. Episode 244 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XIII - The Second Prussian Insurrection

  57. Episode 245 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XIV - The siege of Königsberg

  58. Episode 246 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXXVI - The Order fights back

  59. Episode 247 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XV - Pagan victories

  60. Episode 248 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XVI - Samland surrenders

     

     

  61. Episode 249 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XVII - The end of the Second Insurrection

  62. Episode 250 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXXVII - The early 1270s

  63. Episode 251 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXXVIII - The late 1270s

  64. Episode 252 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XVIII - The Third Prussian Insurrection

  65. Episode 253 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XIX - So many Master Conrads

  66. Episode 254 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XX - A fuzzy end

  67. Vierbrudersaule

    Episode 255 The Baltic Crusades

    The Prussian Crusade XXI - A less fuzzy end

     

    In this episode, we discuss the Fifth Prussian Insurrection and the end of the Prussian Crusade.  One of the victims of the Insurrection was Martin von Golin.  Here is a photo of a column which may have been erected in Martin's honour at the site of his death in a forest near Königsberg.

  68. Episode 256 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XXXIX - The merchants of Riga

  69. Episode 257 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XL - Civil war

  70. Episode 258 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XLI - Archbishop Isarnus of Riga

  71. Episode 259 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XLII - Archbishop Friedrich of Riga

  72. Episode 260 The Baltic Crusades

    The Samogitian Crusade I - Setting the scene

  73. Episode 261 The Baltic Crusades

    The Samogitian Crusade II - Vytenis v Heinrich von Plötzke

  74. Episode 262 The Baltic Crusades

    The Samogitian Crusade III - Grandmaster Karl von Trier

  75. Episode 263 The Baltic Crusades

    The Livonian Crusade XLIII - Papal investigations